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- An Anthology of German Literature
- Mühsam ernährt sich das Eichhörnchen. Zum Glück bin ich keins! (German Edition)
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They are a hospitable people and are impressed by anyone who tries to speak their language.
Germans will feel that way about you when you miss an ending or use an incorrect verb tense. It actually has a great deal in common with English. If you apply yourself, you will soon discover that German is easier than you thought and that it also is fun to learn. Good luck! Believe it or not, German and English stem from the same ancestral language family. Remember: The more effort you put into this project, the more your German will improve. This chapter gives you an idea of what it takes to master frequently encountered German phrases and words.
When you think about it, studying German makes sense. When Only German Will Do In addition, many businesses, industries, and specialties such as medicine and science use German terms, particularly those with international markets or affiliations. So drop the golf club, the computer mouse, and the VCR remote control.
Get way ahead of your colleagues: Learn German. Hypochonder Der Teufel hol das Menschengeschlecht! Und kaum seh ich ein Menschengesicht, So hab ichs wieder lieb. I continually make firm resolutions to stop seeing people and to consign the whole nation to God and to itself and to the devil! And then I have only to see a human face and I love it again. The English version works about as well as using a sledgehammer to slice bread.
How Much German Is Enough? Take a moment to consider your motives:. Culture Shock Many medical and scientific words are easy to understand in German and hard to understand in English. Try saying that three times fast! Your knowledge of grammar will remain somewhat passive, outshined by your expansive knowledge German vocabulary expressing abstractions.
Figuring out how German structures its sentences will help you develop the patience to wait for the verb. If you understand what you need from the German language, you easily can tailor this book to your needs and use it to your advantage. You Could Look It Up Whatever your particular needs are, a bilingual dictionary is as essential to your learning as doublespeak is to a lawyer.
What do you need to know to use a bilingual dictionary? Be forewarned: Using a bilingual dictionary is a little tougher than using an English dictionary. After finding the German translation for an English word, go ahead and take a moment to look up that new German word. The next thing you should do is figure out what the abbreviations used in the definitions mean.
Here are a few of them:. Prepositions are words such as above, along, beyond, before, through, in, to, and for that are placed before nouns to indicate a relationship to other words in a sentence. Intransitive verb. Transitive verb.3ci.agency/wp-includes
An Anthology of German Literature
Learning Parts of Speech, Inside Out Learning how to use a bilingual dictionary takes a little grammatical know how. For example, you should know how to use the basic parts of speech. Take the word inside. Do you see how the meaning of the word changes in the following sentences when it is used as various parts of speech? He could feel it in his insides.
Innerhalb, im Innern von or Gen.
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- Schlüsselprobleme der Gesellschaftstheorie: Individuum und Gesellschaft - Soziale Ungleichheit - Modernisierung (Frankfurter Beiträge zur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie) (German Edition).
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We will be home inside of two hours. He had inside information on the horse race. We go inside the cave. He hides the key inside the box. Because the possible combinations of nouns are practically unlimited, you can actually create your own compound words pretty much as you please by linking nouns together. The ability to create words at will in German is one reason that this language has been so instrumental to many great thinkers.
They have been able to express new concepts and ideas by coining, or making up, new words. The flip side to this flexibility is that these compound words are not easily translatable. As a Rule Many German words in academic texts are compound words, and some of these compound words are not in the dictionary. A knowledge of basic German vocabulary will enable you to take apart those big, cumbersome compound words and look up their components one by one in a bilingual dictionary. The more you rely on and trust your powers of deduction, the easier learning a foreign language becomes!
Although vocabulary correspondences are perhaps the most obvious, the two languages also share structural secrets—consider the way they form the. Although these similarities seem fortuitous to the English-speaking learner of German you! Once upon a time, in fact, the Germanic languages were closely related to the following linguistic groups: Albanian, Armenian, Baltic, Celtic, Greek, Hittite, Indic, Iranian, Italic, Slavic, and Tocharian—all members of the Indo-European language family.
Indo-European, spoken more than 6, years ago, was the predecessor language of English and most European languages, minus Finnish and Hungarian. But it took a German, Jacob Grimm, to figure out the sound correspondences between various branches of Indo-European and Germanic languages.
The Germanic languages can be subdivided according to geographical location: north, east, and west. North Germanic languages are Scandinavian, including Icelandic, Norwegian, Faroese, Gothlandic, Swedish, and Danish; East Germanic is represented chiefly by Gothic, an extinct language preserved in a fourth-century Bible translation. So what happened to cause the rift between English and German?
An actual shift. No, not of earth, but of consonants, which occurred in the southernmost reaches of the German-speaking lands sometime around the fifth century. Linguistic Relates to language, and linguistics is the study of the nature and structure of human speech. The first shift circa B. You think you have it bad with German pronunciation?
Consider the baffled Italian, Spaniard, or Rumanian learning English. What is this poor learner of English to do with threw and through? German is what is called a phonetic language; German words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled. In German it is always pronounced. This rule makes it easy to spell, as well.
You need simply to learn what sounds are represented by the letters in German. Also, you should get comfortable enunciating every letter in a word. This chapter helps you figure out how to pronounce German vowels. Vowel a, e, i, o, and u are vowels. Umlaut The term for the two dots that can be placed over the vowels a, o, and u.
Modified or mutated vowel A vowel that takes an umlaut is referred to as a modified vowel, incurring a mutation of sound.
Mühsam ernährt sich das Eichhörnchen. Zum Glück bin ich keins! (German Edition)
Three German vowels—a, o, and u— can do a little cross-dressing. They are sometimes written with two dots above them. These two dots are called an umlaut and signal a change in the sound and meaning of a word.
When a vowel takes an umlaut, it becomes a modified or mutated vowel. The vowel tables in this chapter provide hints, English examples, and the letters used as symbols to represent the sounds of vowels in German words. Stress The emphasis placed on one or more syllables of a word when you pronounce it.
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Stress is the emphasis placed on one or more syllables of a word when you pronounce it. Foreign words such as Hotel, Musik, and Philosophie that have been assimilated into the German language do not follow German rules of stress or pronunciation, although they do acquire German pronunciation of vowels.
Your Own Personal Accent Some people have no problem pronouncing new sounds in a foreign language. They were born rolling their Rs, courtesy of genetics, and producing throaty gutturals. Some people spend their adolescence serving as conduits at seances for famous dead Germans, Russians, Spaniards, and Italians.
Not all of us have been so lucky. Those intuitive skills you used to acquire your first language will enable you to learn a foreign language. Heightening your linguistic awareness, you can teach your tongue to make new sounds the same way you would teach your muscles to make new movements if you suddenly decided to change your hobby from long-distance running to synchronized swimming. As an adult language learner, you are able to monitor your speech—comparing your utterances with your conscious knowledge and correcting yourself accordingly.
After you learn how to pronounce German words correctly, reading them will be a breeze.